McLean v. Arkansas Documentation Project
These (ACLU) notes are from the collection of McLean materials donated to the NCSE by plaintiffs witness William V. Mayer. They document the testimony of State's witness W. Scot Morrow.
Please note that this is not an official trial document.
teaching role at Wofford undergraduate research program
80 - resume; abstracts
beliefs - an agnostic
- ultimate concern; strong ingredient of
rightness and wrongness.
considers himself an evolutionist
Science - an effort to determine the nature of nature; data-explanation-testability of evidence. "intersubjective testability"--experiment can be falsified.
cannot be falsified, neither can creation-science: difficult to construct an
Main reason why evolution is held to is because lots of scientists want to believe it.
Qualities of scientist: open mind (objective, open-minded); curiosity; concern for use of information; serve public; confidence that other scientists are dependable in their work.
dictum: important thing is what's
been said, not who's saying it.
of new ideas: science not open to
them, unless they draw upon current theory. Conservative -v- radical strains in
science: conservatism rejects new theories. People who shake cherished concepts
have difficulty getting published - new or radical ideas that don't conveniently
fit into current science do get a hostile reception: papers rejected by science
journal, e.g. Robert Gentry, no cogent scientific evidence available for
alternative explanation of his work.
scientists on the cutting-edge of science. (e.g. of radical theories now
accepted -- continental drift)
of scientists who make discoveries outside of their fields, molecular
- accumulation of facts;
collection of evidence; information
that is not just one-time event.
- evaluation of data.
- scientists more interested in interpretation of data
What data do creation-scientists look at? Same things as other scientists-real dispute is over what they mean. Creationists look at more information than evolutionists.
2: not supposed to act in persuasive manner re religion – no religious
material; healthy degree of restraint if one has
philosophical/intellectual preference; e.g. "balanced treatment" –
teacher dealing with information he or she doesn't like.
model and ev. model should be taught - because both are just as scientific or
nonscientific as a teacher makes them.
approach-"method of inquiry"- emphasize fostering student to think
about evidence. (Use of BSCS material)
science material: Did Man Get
Here by Creation or Evolution? - Fundamentalist and nonfundamentalist
students liked this two-model approach. - Students don't like one-answer
Two-model approach should be taught because
(1) Good science neither is capable of rigorous testing
(2) Method of inquiry
(3) Method of multiple working hypotheses foster healthy ability to learn appraisal
Offends his dignity and honor to have someone (Mayer) tell him what to teach -
only 1 model "utmost intellectual arrogancy"
- origins of human behavior and culture - dual model approach - would get to
"cutting edge" of discipline. Evidence supporting different I.Q.
levels of races - others dispute it. Neither is adequate interpretation of data.
Dogmatism of noble gases - kept scientific work from being done.
creation science is more exciting and has more potential than evolution model.
evidence support c-s?
evidence used by evolutionists - different interpretations - can't produce life,
but evolutionists can't produce life.
plaintiffs' experts are wrong that creation-scientists' interpretations are not
science, i.e. experts don't like conclusions they draw --
close-minded re creationists
Gentry's work is best evidence of early origin of first life.
possibilities - negligible
& Wick's book, Evolution From Space difficulty of accounting for
first life - their model like scientific creationism - "sudden
appearance"; same kind of family tree - ev. model but a lot of scientific
book could be used to teach c-s: clearly scientific, credible.
135 – disc. of Ockam's razor -
there are 2 theories, simpler one is preferable: be suspicious of theory if more
and more hypotheses are needed to support it - ev. = Ptolemaic, Hoyle =
- No graduate degree in education definition - "creation-science" focuses on sudden set of mechanisms of life' appearance - does he know definition in Act 590?
does he know the term "c-s"
in c-s: Gish, Gentry, Morris has not read complete book by any of them.
Read a lot of ICR materials
590 - definition 4(A)
Does he know sc. evidence for this?
A. Big Bang; fossil record (sudden emergence) "from nothing" - physicists use of "Big Bang" Theory. Big Bang is consistent with 4(a). Big Bang - has to do with beginning of the universe, not beginning of life.
constitutes the body of c-s?
numbers of inconsistencies of evolution; -statistical improbability of life
- his intellectual preference
4(a)2 support other models - perhaps, but there are only 2 models.
model - postulate mechanisms not
accessible to science
to supernatural creator? - not necessarily "supernatural creator"
beyond science; can't measure it.
"fixed limits ... created kinds"
insufficiency of mutational rates.
15, - answer was "no"
Has since given the matter more thought prior to now, his acquaintance
with scientific evidence for creation was much less.
4(a)4 - separate ancestry for man & apes:
absence of sufficient numbers of transitional forms
depo., p. 16 - "none sufficient to persuade him to
change his mind"
- now he knows; didn't at time of deposition
Gentry has best evidence
4(a)6 - Gentry; prior to last week,
no, he didn't know of evidence
community: bias against s.c.; has no direct experience with rejection of
papers; knows of people who have told him they've had problem. e.g. Gehtry'.
ways to destroy information (1) ignore (2) refuse to publish
questions Morrow - what is basis for Morrow's opinion says Morrow has not
shown any basis for his opinions.
(con't) Has had no experience writing textbooks; thinks flat earth theory would
be interesting to teach.
never taught in public schools; has taught
creation-science as part of a two-model approach in
environmental science class. Has never taught a full course in
ev. for "relatively recent
inception of earth"=one billion years of less.
From Space, p. 75 - "The earth
itself is about 4.5 billion years old"
c-s a coherent/cohesive body of science to be presented to students?
know of Gentry's writings before he got to Little Rock
Would he be bothered by not answering religious questions about creation
He's always bothered when he can't answer students question
cs literature w/o religious/Bib. references?
Impact 11: - short reference would not make it religious.
material scientific paper, not
p. 147: any
c-s material with no religious references.
Not that I can think of.
Without reference to a creator?
Doesn't know. Thinks he could teach c.s. without religious content; Thinks he
could teach supernatural creator without teaching religion - stress mechanisms
and events not explicable by physical chemistry.
depo., P. 134 - teaching supernatural creator was a religious concept - now: it is not religious instruction would tell student he can't explain many things.
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