REV. BILL McLEAN, ET AL #
Plaintiff, # IN THE UNITED STATES
VS. # DISTRICT COURT, EASTERN
THE STATE OF ARKANSAS, # DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS,
ET AL. #
Defendants # WESTERN DIVISON
# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #
ORAL DEPOSITION OF GARTH RUSSELL AKRIDGE, Ph.D.
# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # #
MR. DAVID KLASFELD,
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher,
& Flom, New York 10022
## For the Plaintiffs.
MR. CALLIS CHILDS,
Attorney General's Office,
Justice Building, Little Rock,
## For the Defendants
ANSWERS AND DEPOSITION OF GARTH RUSSELL
AKRIDGE, Ph.D., a witness produced on behalf of the
Plaintiffs, taken in the above-styled case and
numbered case on the 25th day of November, 1981,
before Certified Court Reporters and Notaries Public,
in and for Fulton County, Georgia, at American Civil
Liberties Union, 52 Fairlie Street, Suite 355,
Atlanta, Georgia, at 11:00 a.m., pursuant to the
agreement thereinafter set forth.
GARTH RUSSELL AKRIDGE, Ph.D.
being first duly sworn, was examined and testified
BY MR. KLASFELD:
Q Doctor Akridge, how old is the earth?
A People have different dates according
to whose estimate.
Q How old do you think the earth to be?
A I believe the earth to be around -- just
to use a round figure -- 10,000 years old.
Q What about not to use a round figure?
A Well, that's about the closest I can
come. I think it's just -- I would like to stick
Q Ten thousand years old?
Q What is the basis for your belief the
earth is 10,000 years old?
A Well, different astronomical measure-
ments, mainly the thing called the blackbody back-
Q Mainly, blackbody background --
A Blackbody -- one word -- radiation.
Q What else?
A The possibility that the sun is not --
could not be much older than that.
Q The sun cannot be more than 10,000
A That's right.
Q What else?
A The decreasing magnetic field of the
Q What other reason?
A Well, those are all I'd like to talk
about here, I think.
Q How old does the Bible say the earth is?
A To tell the truth, I've never figured
it up, connected dates together. I just don't know.
Q Have you ever had any discussions with
anybody about how old the bible says the earth is?
A Not that I remember, no. I haven't had
that discussion, no.
Q Have you ever heard of Bishop Usher?
A Oh, yes.
Q Have you ever heard of an opinion about
how old he thinks the earth is?
A I believe I did. I believe he's got a
date of Creation -- I think it's 4,004 B.C., isn't
that about right?
Is he wrong?
A You'd have to ask him, I've never added
Q Added what up?
A The dates the Bible -- tried to arrive
at a Biblical date.
Q You've never had a discussion with
anyone about what the Bible suggests about how old
the earth is?
A Well, tell me what you mean by discussion
about how old the Bible says the earth is? An exact
date or what?
Q Have you ever talked to anybody about
how old they think the Bible says the earth is?
MR.CHILDS: I'm going to object.
This witness in not competent as he
himself has indicated to testify as to
how old other people say the Bible says
the earth is.
MR. KLASFELD: I've only asked
him if he's ever talked to anybody.
That's not an objection.
A (The Witness) I have discussed, generally
the Bible with people, but nothing specific.
Q What is it about blackbody ground radia-
tion that leads you to believe that the earth cannon
be more than 10,000 years old?
A Well, the galaxy's self-absorption would
heat up to about three degrees Kelvin in a matter of
a few thousand years, say, under a round number
there, 10,000 years.
Q Can you explain what that means and
what the implications of it are? It has no meaning
to me in terms of a proof why the earth is only
10,000 years old.
A Okay, space has what's called a radiation
temperature of about three degrees above absolute
zero and that means that it's glowing all around,
a very faint glow of about three degrees above
absolute zero. It's not a difficult calculation to
determine that this is about the amount of time that
it would take the galaxy's own self-absorption to
heat itself up from absolute zero to about three
degrees Kelvin. And that general range of age is
Q What do you mean by self-absorption?
A Like you explain a flashlight through
a dusty room. That would eventually heat up the room
just because the dust particles would absorb the
light and radiate or collide with one another and heat
the room up.
Q Is the three-degree Kelvin temperature
A Nobody knows.
Q Well, if it's not changing, why does
that lead you to some conclusion that it had to take
10,000 years to get where it is?
A Well, you see, for instance, if it did
start out at zero and built up to three degrees in
10,000 years, then, the -- the first measurements
on this would have been in about 1965 and that's
fifteen years ago, approximately, and in that short
time you couldn't detect whether it was rising, going
to remain steady, or decreasing. The time that we
have measured this is too short to tell.
Q I don't know why you are drawing con-
clusions, any conclusion about the fact that it's
now three degrees Kelvin. I don't understand why
you draw any conclusion about 10,000 years old from
A You mean you don't understand the cal-
culation process at all or -- it's rather intricate.
Q I guess I don't understand the fact
that three degrees Kelvin has anything to do with
the fact that the earth may not have been here
10,000 years ago.
A The earth may not have been here 10,000
years ago --
Q Why you're saying the reason why you
think the earth is 10,000 years old is because of
the fact that there's this three-degree Kelvin
space radiation temperature. And I don't understand
what one has to do with the other.
A Well, the galaxy emits a fairly well-known
amount of light and it's -- you can also arrive at
a general estimate of the fraction of the galaxy's
own light it absorbs before it gets out of the dust
of the galaxy and that way you can determine the rate
at which the galaxy's dust absorbs its own light
energy and determine the rate at which it's heating
up and how long it would take to heat three degrees;
a general figure, 10,000 years.
Q Could it be 20,000 years?
A Probably could. There's no way to
determine exactly. But you could come within general
figures. Like, for example, I've read at different
places in our region of the galaxy, will absorb 20%,
some say 30%, of our own light before it eventually
gets out of the galaxy. So different authors disa-
gree on absolute amounts.
Q Is there anybody who agrees with you
A Well, I've co-authored a paper with
two other physicists, and we discussed it and had
an agreement, at least us three.
Q Who are they?
A Dr. Slusher and Dr. Barnes at the
University of Texas.
Q What is Dr. Slusher's degree or his
A I think he has just an Awarded Doctorate.
I believe he has a Ph.D. or Doctor's degree.
Q What is his Master's in? Do you know?
A Well, his Master's was in Astronomy. And
I believe he told me that he did his work under
Q And Doctor Barnes?
A You know, I don't know about what Dr.
Barne's Ph.D. is in.
Q Does anyone else agree with you about
A Well, I guess I'll find out soon. It's
to be published, but I haven't published it yet.
Q Were is it going to be published?
A In The Creation of Research Society Quarterly.
Q Is there any reason you chose that
publication to publish your article?
A Well, they have been receptive of other
articles I've written. It's a good trend to keep up,
Q What about Science Magazine, Nature
A Well, I didn't submit it to them, because
they commonly publish articles only dealing with long-
time spans for the age of the Universe and I just
didn't bother submitting it to them.
Q Have you ever submitted an article?
To Science Magazine?
A Not to Science, no.
Q What magazines have you submitted
A Are we just talking about the articles
that deal with the Creation and Evolution?
A Well, you have my publication list there.
This is just for submission s that are not on the
list. I've submitted to the Physical Review and to
the American Journal of Physics.
Q Of which articles are these?
A The article to the Physical Review was
an article which I attempted to relate general
relativity to Fermium Quantum Mechanics, and they
rejected it. Of course, that didn't have anything
to do with Creation.
Well, the other one was the article I
submitted to the American Journal of Physics, more
or less the same article that's there, the Faraday-
Disk Dynamo and Geomagnetism, and they rejected it
Q Do you think they have a bias against
articles that suggest that the earth and the universe
are 10,000 years old?
A Well, you have to ask the editors. But
I know that John Riggen, who is the editor of Journal
of Physics, about three months ago wrote an editorial
in there in which he favored Evolution over Creation.
You will just have to ask them.
Q And in doing the calculation on the
background radiation, why do you start out and take
the belief that it started out at absolute zero and
has been increasing since then?
A Well, that's just the way to get the
longest possible age. If it started out higher than
zero and just rose from one to three, you would get
an even shorter age. That gives us the maximum age
you could have.
Q Why do you believe the sun can't be more
than 10,000 years old?
A Well, I can't recall saying it can't
be. I believe I said that it's a possibility that
it's not. The age of the sun depends upon what the
sun draws its energy from. If there is no fusion
occurring in the interior of the sun, then the sun
would not last too long on the time scale that we
are talking about. And would go out in, say, tens
of thousands to maybe a million years.
Q What evidence do you have that there's
no fusion going on inside?
A Well, I have not discovered any evi-
dence. but there is debatable evidence for the lack
solar neutrinos from the sun. Some recent measurements
have indicated that the sun is decreasing in size
and has been doing that for a hundred years. Those
are the two.
Q What scientific evidence do you have that
there's no fusion going on in the sun?
A Well, you see, if there was fusion at
the least temperature, which is believe by many, then
you would see those small elementary particles called
neutrinos coming out in abundance, that you can
barely measure. Measurements have yielded much less
than the amount of neutrinos you would expect. And
probably just background neutrinos, it's an indica-
tion that there's no fusion inside the sun.
Q How can you believe the sun does generate
the energy it creates?
A Well, you know, I don't know. I can
think of several possibilities. But as far as I
believe how it generates its energy, I don't know.
You would actually have to go into the interior of
the sun and find out.
Q That's the only way you could find out
how the sun generated?
A As far as I know.
Q Do yo have any theory of your own?
A Well, I can think of several possibili-
ties. That's something that excites me to think of,
One theory that did not originate with
me is that the sun derives its energy from gravita-
tional contraction, and it contracts, it heats up,
shines, loses energy, it leaks a little bit, contracts,
heats up. So it's in the process of contracting and
Q How fast does the sun contract?
A Well, the measurements of Edya Bernasium
indicate about a 10% per century. Measurement of
Erwin Sherpiro and others indicates it contracts
probably none at atall within a statistical era. So
it's really an unsettled question.
Q The article that you had rejected, do
you have the rejection letter?
A No, I don't. I wish I had saved it. I
looked for it and couldn't find it.
Q Do you remember the content of that
A Well, somewhat. It was the Faraday-Disc
Dynamo article to the American Journal of Physics and
was rejected for several reasons.
One was, like I said, a could of disk
dynamos could oscilate. Another reason that it was
rejected was that the magnetised rock in the earth's
crust indicated that the magnetic field did oscilate.
Another reason was that, in any event, the earth is
known to be much older than the age that I was sup-
porting. And those are the general reasons that it
Q How do you choose the term, 10,000 years,
from your radius of the sun?
A I don't, I don't.
Q Why did you list that formula when I
asked you for the evidence of the earth's being
10,000 years old?
A The 10,000 years would come from black -
body radiation. The sun, if it liberates energy by
gravitational contraction, alone could last much
longer than that. It could last several million
Q Who in your field agrees with you that
the sun radiates energy by gravitational contraction
A Well, there's Dr. Ted Rybka, Slusher,
Q Could you tell me how mcuh the sun would
have to constrict in order to produce the energy that
it's currently putting out?
A Well, it wouldn't constrict nearly that
much. It would only constrict a few feet, say in
the neighborhood of 70 to 80 feet per year if in
constricting in uniform.
Q Have we been absorbing this 70 or 80
feet contraction per year?
A That's too small to observe the size of
the sun. The size if irregularity is from the sun's
surface much greater than that anyway.
Q Are there other examples of stars that
give off heat by contraction?
A Well, we've not observed, as I recall,
any starts in the process of contracting. By that,
actually seeing them set up and give off heat, not
to my knowledge, no.
Q Have any other stars been observed giving
off energy by nuclear reaction?
A I don't know how you tell. We observed
them giving off energy, and that's about all I could
Q What is there about the decreasing
magnetic field of the earth?
A All right. The earth's magnetic field
has been measured for, oh about a little over a hun-
dred years, seems it's about 150, about that time
span. And it's been found to decrease by a few per
cent in that time. So if this process is uniform,
that's an "if", if that process is anything like
uniform, then the magnetic field must have been much
If you go back very far, in other words,
say 50,000 years to 100,000, a million years, then
that magnetic field becomes unthinkably large. In
other words, the earth would tear itself apart. It
would have a magnetic field greater than anything we
have ever measured anywhere.
Q In 10,000 years?
A No. It takes more than 10,000 years,
say 50,000, a 100,000.
Q What makes you believe that the process
A Well, just that -- let me back up. I don't
know that it is uniform.
Q Well, you are assuming the process is
uniform in order to come to this conclusion?
A Well, you see, you have to assume some-
thing or you can't get any results out atall for
this reason. Nobody's been to the center of the
earth. There could be a little guy down there with
a magnet waving it around for all we know. We don't
think there is.
You have to assume why the earth has a
magnetic field in the first place in order to make
anything useful out of the decrease. Most people
think it's molten metal circulated in the interior
of the core and generating a magnetic field. And
if that's the case, friction alone is going to slowly
use current down, and the magnetic field would de-
crease, that's true. If that's true, then in past
times, the current would have been greater in order
to slow the principal volume down, and the field
would have been stronger. But, you know, nobody's
been to the center of the earth.
Q Until somebody goes to the center of the
earth, we'll never know?
A Never know for sure.
/ / /
Q Is that a reasonable assumption of the
processes have been numerous? I think there is evi-
dence that the magnetic field has been reversed over
A Yes, much evidence.
Q What is that evidence?
A The magnetic-reversed rocks.
Q What other evidence?
A Well, we observed other objects doing
this, for example, the sun, reversing its polarity,
although it is a gaseous body, not solid.
Q Any other evidence?
A I can't think of any.
Q How do you explain a magnetically-
A Let me take a pill and let me think on
that. Why don't you get on to your next question.
I can give you the answer to that which is, I don't
MR. CHILDS: Excuse me, please.
Does the record reflect where these
gentlemen are from?
MR. KLASFELD: Yes.
Q (By Mr. Klasfeld) How do you explain the
fact that the sun reverses its polarity?
A Well, the polarity of the sun is believed
to be reversed because the circulating currents in
the sun are reversed. But it is another one of those
things that is a theory - nobody has ever there to
Q What evidence is there that the magnetic
field didn't reverse?
A The decrease in the magnetic field
strength that has been occurring, if it continues in
either direction, it is very difficult.
If it continues in forward direction,
in around a thousand years or so you are going to
reach a condition where the earth has zero magnetic
field on the way to reversing its poles. That's bad
because once a magnet stops, it's center is gone. It
won't automatically re-energize itself. In the past,
it's been difficult to see how the magnetic could have
the earth circulating, the magnetic core, if that's
what, indeed, causes this effect. It is difficult to
see how it could have stopped in the past and begin
circulating in the opposite direction, so as to re-
verse the poles.
Once it stops, it stops unless an exter-
nal source of energy is applied.
Q Is there any scientific evidence that
the magnetic field didn't reverse?
A Not that I know of.
Q But even that would have taken fifty
to one hundred thousand years?
A Even what?
Q The evidence about the magnetic fields
of the earth, if they didn't reverse, would only lead
you to conclude that it couldn't have existed more
than fifty to one hundred thousand years?
A That's true.
Q So it's really only the blackbody back-
ground radiation that leads you to believe that it
is not more than 10,000 years old?
A For that figure, that's right.
Q Now, you have written an article,
"The Mature Creation: More Than A Possibility." In it,
you argue that it is entirely likely that light was
created from -- en route from all of the stars to the
earth; is that correct?
A I'm not sure if I would use likely or
not, but it is possible.
Q The article is called, "More Than A
Q -- which is why I used the word "likely"
and not "possibly."
A Well, let's go ahead and use "likely" and
we will see how it turns out.
Q Does that mean thatthe heat was also
created at that time?
A Does the article talk about heat?
A I don't recall it?
Q No, it didn't. But I am asking you in
light of your theory about blackbody radiation and
A I see. No, I believe no.
Q The heat wasn't created?
A No, I believe not.
Q Why not?
A I don't know.
Q How could the light have been created
without the heat?
A The light -- we seem to get two things
mixed up. The light that is connected with three-
degree radiation could. We are talking about possi-
bilities. It could have been or it could not have
been. If it was created, then it would have heated
up now to a temperature greater than six degrees which
is not observed. So since the background temperature
is now around three degrees, you can't say what it
was in times past for sure.
If it was any greater than zero degrees
when it started, it would have heated up much past
three degrees by now.
Q I have a very limited knowledge of this
science, but my sort of understanding is that heat
is approximately equal to infrared light.
A That's about right.
Q Then how could your argument about the
mature creation not effect what you just said about
A Well, the blackbody radiation is not
infrared. It is quite a different wave length called
micro wave length.
Q But all of these stars and all of this
light was created at once but that had no effect on
the amount of heat in the galaxy?
A Try to rephrase that one. I don't quite
Q Well, in your article on "Mature Creation"
you said that all of the stars were created with --
let me back up. In an effort, as I understand it,
to try and explain what you view as a paradox that
there are stars that seem to be billions of light-
years away, yet we are receiving the light of the
earth, but the earth is only 10,000 years old, that
can't be possible because the stars are billions of
light-years away. You argue that it is more than a
possibility, to use your language, that the light
was created at the same time, that the stars were
en route to the earth.
And I am asking if, in addition, you gave
me an example of the fact that if you shined a light
into a room, that it will eventually heat up the room
to some degree.
My question is: Doesn't the instant
creation of all of this light in the galaxy effect your
calculation about the blackbody radiation?
A No, the blackbody radiation would not have
been there but would have started when the light was
created, being absorbed by the depths.
(Thereupon, a short break was had.)
/ / /
Q (By Mr. Klasfeld) Dr. Akridge?
A Yes, sir.
Q Why do you exclude the background radiation
from being created originally when the light was
A Well, if the background radiation was
created at that time, then, heat, I think -- however
many thousands of years it's heated. According to the
data I gave you, it wouldn't be double the temperature,
but hotter than it's observed to be.
Q I thought you testified it was changing
so slowly that we can't observe it.
A It is, but we haven't lived six to ten
thousand years. If we could live another ten thousand
years, we might observer another -- some change in it,
but over a hundred years it's almost impossible to
observe a change of a tenth of a degree or a hundredth
of a degree in that radiation.
Q Back to my point.
If you don't know the rate of change in a
temperature why do you draw any conclusion about the
fact that the temperature is three degrees?
A Well, let's not draw a conclusion then. It
could be one of two ways: The Big Bang Theory has it
here one way and the Heating Theory has it another way.
But, then, you know, let's take another for instance:
If the universe in the galaxy had been heating itself
for, say, five billion years, that gas included would
be might hot by now and we certainly do observe that,
but, you're right, if we could find it decreasing or
increasing that would probably settle it.
Q Where is it that this radiation comes
from? It comes from the galaxy?
A I think it comes from our own galaxy, yes.
Q Why is it, then, that the background
radiation is uniform and not isotropic?
A Well, it's all equilibrium. It's like
the interior of an oven. If your oven's on 400 degrees
the coils in the wall keep it about that temperature
and it will be the same temperature near the coil as
it is in the middle of the oven; almost equilibrium.
Q Almost at equilibrium?
A Well, to the extent it heats up three
degrees in 10,000 years.
Q Is the dust and gas in our galaxy distri-
A Well, no, it's not.
Q Wouldn't that affect the heating caused
by background radiation?
A It would affect the amount of heating that
particular -- we likened it to an oven -- that parti-
cular amount of heat that coil produces, but the
radiation, again like the oven is more or less the
same throughout the interior even thought more heat
comes from the coil and not from the center of the
Q Do all of --
A The temperature is the same.
Q Do all of the stars create energy the
way the sun does?
A I don't know.
Q Either -- do you have any evidence for
any of the stars creating energy in a different way
that the sun creates energy?
A Well, I'd have to say, no, and add to that
that we're really not sure how the sun creates it
Q Is there any scientific evidence that the
different stars are made up of different elements?
A Yes, there is.
Q Do you believe that some stars are older
than other stars?
A Very honestly, I don't know.
Q How do you explaint the fact that the
different stars are made up of different elements?
A I just don't know. I wasn't there when
they were formed. I don't know.
Q Is your belief as a scientist that if you
are not there when it happens or you couldn't go to
the center of it that you cannot have any understanding
about how it happens?
A No, that's not my belief of -- if you
include those words, any understanding, that's true.
Q But you would have a very limited under-
A I guess I could go along with that.
Q And everybody's guess would be equally
A My feeling on that is everybody's guessed
that fits the observed data ought to be equally as
good unless you have some that fit better than others
and some contradict more than others.
Q How does your theory of a decreasing mag-
netic field fit observed data of magnetically reversed
Q (By Mr. Klasfeld) Could you define for
me, Dr. Akridge, how a scientific method?
A Well, it's a process -- you observe a
phenomena and then you construct a guess as to what's
happened. The guess is called a hypothesis. And you
use your guess to test other phenomena as long as
If your guess works, then, it builds your
confidence in the guess and if it doesn't work, then,
you either junk it or modify it and then go through
the cycle again.
And, eventually, if you have some under-
standing of it and your guess works often, then, you
use another name for it and call it a theory.
And, then, a theory that's worked for
a long time -- it depends kind of on the culture as
to what a long time is -- it is promoted to the place
where it's called a law.
Q When something becomes a law, is it, then,
A No, its just -- my feeling is thatit must
be close to the truth, because it's worked so well for
so long, but I don't say any law could be the true law.
I don't think you have that.
Q What acts does your theory about electro-
magnetic -- the decreasing electromagnetic field --
what facts does it explain?
A It would explain the decrease in the
electromagnetic field. It's also in very good agreement
with the laws of electrodynamics; and those two.
Q But it doesn't explain magnetically
A You know, I kind of object to the words,
magnetically reversed. It implies that it is magnetized
by reversal or something and I don't believe that
happened. It doesn't explain why some are magnetized
toward the present north and some toward the south.
Q Does the record of rocks reflect only
the one change or does it reflect many changes?
A Very many.
Q This theory doesn't explain any of them?
A No, it shouldn't have changed at all
according to this theory, that is correct.
Q So you have these facts which you've
tested, your hypothesis, and you've found your hypo-
thesis was wanting in that it doesn't explain this
observable data. How does that affect your hypothesis?
A Well, you say, is there any other reason --
see, if you have something that does fit somethings,
but doesn't fit others, that's the time for research.
You say, well, let's dig into this and
find out what's going on -- is the theory wrong? What's
wrong with it? So there are many possibilities and
as far as I know, not too many of them have been looked
For example, except for a recent dive off
Mexico the prominent magnetic rocks are not measured
directly, but just by a time-averaged magnetometer
dragged above them on a boat.
The dive in Mexico indicates that is a
rather accurate procedure. It's still one of those
things that up for grams.
A time-averaged magnetometer model drag
doesn't indicate what the individual rocks are doing.
Secondly, the rock magnetized, at least,
on sealevel it's true, or magnetized on stripes on
the surface and people thought they were below the
surface. But there's not the same uniform stripes
beneath the surface so it's one of those paradoxes.
There is another possibility that these
rocks could have been reversed -- magnetized by another
process. It's possible for rocks to be magnetized
reverse or even transversed to -- under different
conditons of stress and pressure so there are a lot
of possibilitys and its a great topic for research,
as far as I know.
Q Do you have any scientific evidence for
any of those other rocks?
A Well, now, the scientific evidence would be
the reversed magnetized rocks and I have never -- I
don't have any experience with anybody trying to reverse
magnetize rock under any conditions, really. I don't
know of any such experiment.
Q Are you aware, Dr. Akridge, of any research
that's going on to examine the forms and solidification
of rock on the ocean floor now?
A Well, there's the Submarine Alvin that
tires to examine the so-called chimneys on the bottom
of the floor and pick up rocks samples and actually
lift them off the bottom so we can see what their
condition is and bring them up and analyze them. I'm
aware of that.
And the rest of it, no, I guess there
should be some research going on, but I don't know
Q Are you aware of any evidence, any scienti-
fic evidence, that these newly formed rocks -- when
I say, newly formed, I mean within our life time --
are magnetized in any special way?
A I'm not aware of it. I just don't know.
Q You're not aware of any evidence that
newly formed rocks are being magnetized both in field
stregth and direction with the present measurement of
the earth's magnetic field.
A No, I'm not.
MR. KLASFELD: I'd like to mark as
Plaintiff's Exhibit 1 Dr. Akridge's resume.
(Thereupon, the court reporter
marked Plaintiff's Exhibit 1
Q (By Mr. Klasfeld) Before I leave the
topic, Dr. Akridge, if there was such evidence as I
described, what effect would that have on your theory?
A Well, would you describe the evidence,
again, so I can understand?
Q If there was evidence that there was
recently formed rock on the ocean floor, the kind
of striping that we've talked about, and the rock
was examined and was found to be -- that the magnetism
in the rock was found to be the same in field strength
and direction as the earth's magnetic field, would
that have any affect on your theory?
A Well, I don't think a single find would.
Many finds like that made under a wide
variety of temperatures and pressures and chemical
environments -- not to support the idea that it's
always that way -- then, that would have a definite
effect on the theory.
Q How many such findings would you require?
A Gee, I don't know. How many different
conditions are there?
Q I don't know, I'm asking you. I'm asking
you what, as a scientist, would convince you?
A The different conditions of all the possi-
bilities you could imagine. Oh, we used to, in my
research -- my thesis research, anyway, used to get
about 30 to 60 data to see a general trend of one
set of conditions; about that many finds for the
Q Before you'd be willing todraw any con-
A Well, I think you'd have to have a fair
number. Each individual would have his own separate
amount, but somewhere around that certainly sounds
fine by me.
Q Is this your resume, Doctor, Plaintiff's
A That's my resume, yes, sir.
Q What was the subject of your masters thesis
A The Masters of Theology at the New Orleans
Baptist Theological Seminary did not have a thesis.
You took the prescribed courses of study, a certain
numbers of hours, and that was the degree.
Q Was there any particular area you majored?
A At the time I enjoyed studying languages,
the Greek and the Hebrew.
Q You had an unusual resume. It's a little
hard to follow the chronology.
After getting your masters from New
Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, you enrolled
in graduate school at Georgia Tech in physics?
A Back at Georgia Tech, right.
W Was it your intention when you went to
the Theological Seminary to do work for the church?
A No, sir. It was not my intention. I'd
been interested in origin of the world for quite
awhile. I went to the seminary with the intention of
developing some tools to probe the languages and
attemped to see if there was any real information
there. So that's why I enrolled in seminary.
Q Why did your interests in the origin
of the world lead you to seminary?
A Well, you know, these ministers talk about
the origin of the world. And just to be quite honest
with you, I didn't know if they knew what they were
talking about or not. I wanted to dig around with
myself to see if they had anything worth while to
Q What did you learn about the origin of
the world from the New Orleans Baptist Theological
A Well, I learned a little bit about the
Hebrew, that they didn't have any construction
really, could have cared less about the origin.
Q So was your experience there unsatisfactory
in terms of your original reason for going?
A Nothing is a total loss, but that was
somewhat unsatisfactory, yes, sir.
Q Then you changed to physics?
Q Where did you graduate from college?
A Well, I graduated from college at Georgia
Tech here, Bachelors in '62, Masters in '63.
Q And now you have a Ph.D. which you got
A That's correct.
Q What did you do in 1975 when you got your
A At the time I was teaching high school
here at Westminister High School in Atlanta and con-
tinued there for the continuation of the year. And
so for the next four or five months I was teaching
Q And after that?
A I went to Oral Roberts University.
Q What did you teach there?
A I taught most of the general physics,
general variety physics courses. They have a relative
number of them. I think I taught them all at one
time or another.
Q How large is the Department of Physics
at Oral Roberts?
A I guess zero.
Q They don't have a physics department. They
have a Department of Natural Science which includes
chemistry, physics, and mainly biology.
Q How many peope are that department?
A In the whole department there would be
about -- it can vary. There was usually between, say,
15 and 20 faculty members.
Q Teaching all of the natural sciences?
A All of the undergraduate natural sciences.
Q Why did you choose Oral Roberts to teach?
A Well, when I got my Doctor's Degree, I
sent off, as I remember, about a hundred applications,
heard from about ten, and got an interest expressed
from a few. And Oral Roberts was one of those, went
out there and rather liked their faculty, liked their
department head, and decided to move out there and
teach with them.
Q Does Oral Roberts have any kind of religious
requirement for teachers?
A He kind of changes those from time to
time, I think. I'm not sure what he has now or really
what he had back then. If you would like to ask me
a specific question if we had to do or not to do --
Q Well, I guess I meant did you have to
be a Christian in order to teach there.
A I don't know. I suppose you did.
Q But in any event it wasn't a problem for
A No, it wasn't a problem for me.
Q But you weren't asked to sign an oath
or anything like that?
A No, I wasn't, not while I was there.
Q But why did you leave Oral Roberts?
A Let me back up. I do remember that, too.
We had to sign an oath in chapel, some kind. I forget
what he said now, some kind of moral behavior, you
won't do different things like -- I've really forgotten.
It was some kind or moral behavior oath at chapel to
Q Was evolution taught in the Bible courses
at Oral Roberts?
Q Was Creation Science taught?
A Not that I recall. I don't think it was.
Q Why did you leave Oral Roberts?
A Well, I was trying to get them to teach
Creation in their courses and was told that I was
too Baptist, couldn't do that, and then also the main
reason was that it was just a too religious confine-
ment. There towards the end, you would be kind of
an Oral Roberts University mold or nothing. And I
just can't stand to be confined like that. So, I hung
it up and left.
Q Did you understand what they meant when
they said it was too Baptist?
A Well, I know what I thought it meant.
What I thought it meant was that they are a rather
Pentecostal University. In other words, they deal
in just kind of a different denomination of religion
than Baptist. I thought they meant it was not their
Q How did their Pentecostal denomination
differ in that regard from your denomination?
A I never did know.
Q You never discussed that with them?
A I never knew. I discussed it with them,
but I never found out.
Q What did they say and what did you say
in those discussions?
A Well, my plea was for openness, let's talk
about the issues and possibilities here. And their
plea was, you didn't need to do that, just the spirit
was more important that the material. And that's how
it got started.
Q Excuse me --
A The spiritual aspect of Creation was more
important than the material aspect. It didn't matter
how it got started, so just don't worry about it.
Q Where did you go when you left Oral Roberts?
A I came back to Atlanta here and taught
physics at Westminister High School again.
Q I don't mean to mislead you. Your resume
says that in the summer you taught at Heritage College.
A Oh, that's right. In the summer there, I
taught a three-week course in astronomy at Heritage
College in San Diego.
Q Am I correct, the name of the college,
the complete name is Christian Heritage College?
A I guess that's correct. I've always
called it Heritage, but maybe it is Christian Heritage
Q What course did you teach?
A I taught a course on astronomy there for
Q Was the Bible a required text for that
A No. I don't remember if we even talked
about the Bible in the course.
Q What did you teach?
A Well, if it was a beginning astronomy
course, and we talked about the fact that there are
such things as other stars like our own sun, galaxies
and universal galaxies out there and that how you
can identify the temperature and the type of stars.
And then we went out and looked at the stars. A
couple of times we went to the Mount Palomar Explora-
tory. And that about does it for one of their begin-
ning astronomy courses.
Q Did you teach about how the stars were
A We had a book that did teach the evolutionary
the general evolutionary astronomy model and did also
suggest that we think about it on our own. So,
actually, I guess I taught the evolution model and
asked they think about it on their own. And I don't
know, it's just up to them what they thought about.
Q Did you contrast the evolutionary model
with another model?
A I probably did. I know if I were doing
it today, that's what I would like to do. It stimulates
Q What model would you contrast it with?
A I would contrast it, contrast the
recent creation model and the standard evolutionary
model as a formulation of most stars and galaxies.
Q In the standard Creation model, how are
the stars created?
A They were created more or less like
they are today, at the instant of their creation.
Q What brought about their creation?
A Who knows. Who knows either case.
Q Why did you resign from the Westminister
A Well, the faculty was too fussy. They
constanty fussed at one another, which is the thing
that brought me over there in the first place. They
seemed to get along very well and had a good feel of
harmony and worked together when I was there before.
When I came back, they just fussed at one another
all the time. I didn't feel I needed to put up with
that, so I resigned.
Q Fussed in what sense?
A They were always trying to get -- like
some of them wanted science money for their depart-
ment or the courses they wanted taught, the options
they wanted taught and ours. And, of course, we're
all going to have that, but it was just a totally
different feeling that I felt. So it was just a
rather bad feeling I felt from the faculty out there.
Q Did you express an interest in teaching
Creation Science at Westminister School?
A Oh, Yes, I did.
Q Did you teach Creation Science there?
A Well, I taught it as part of my course.
We taught the physics course. And as part of it, one
fifth of it is astronomy, historical astronomy. And
when we came to that, we discussed several different
models, heliocentric and creation model. All the differ-
ent models we could think of.
Q Did your teaching of Creation Science at
the school have any reason, play any role in your
A Well, I wanted them to include more Creation
other than that. That ordinarily they allowed me to
include however much I wanted of it in my own course,
so it played a little part, I guess.
Q Your resume says that in 1981 you began
teaching at Northside Christian Academy a new private
ACE school. What is ACE.
A Those are the abbreviations for Accelerated
Q What is Accelerated Christian Education?
A It is sort of a group of self-paced
teaching, a plan for the students to be given indi-
vidual desks to sit at. And they have what they call
paces. They are actually little booklets that are
40 or 50 pages in length. And the student will go
through and read the material in there along with
other assigned supplementary reading or activities.
And to answer the question, when he
finishes with the booklet, then they take the test.
If he passes the test on that subject, then he goes
on to the next one. If he doesn't, he does remedial
work and takes the test until he can. So it is a
self-paced type of instruction.
Q How old are the children?
A Well, they are the school-age children
from grades 1 through 12.
Q Is the Northside Christian Academy
affiliated with any particular church?
A I don't believe it is.
Q Why did you stop doing research on the
mobility and diffusion of various ions?
A That's what I did at Georgia Tech. And
when I moved to Oral Roberts University, there was
no equipment for that. That required a rather large
amount of experimental equipment, and they weren't
ready to lay out any funds, nor any physics type
of equipment really in the whole time that I was
And so if there was no equipment, you
cannot do the research. So that's why it was a
problem for me to do it.
Q Did you discuss that with them before
you went to OR?
A No, I didn't. I was just looking back
on it. I think I must have assumed that a fellow
that had been doing research in one area, that a
college would provide for him. But that was a little
naive, I think. But you live and learn these things.
Q What do you anticipate that you would
testify about a trial?
A The subject that we have been talking
about, the radiation, just cosmology in general,
the magnetic field's strength decrease.
Q What else?
A Well, I guess those are the -- cosmology
in general covers a wife variety of stuff. But I
haven't done that much recently in all of it. But
the research that I have done, I feel, at least,
prepared to testify about it.
MR. KLASFELD: Mr. Childs, have
you discussed with Dr. Akridge the
limitation of his testimony at the
MR. CHILDS: Can we agree that
it will be limited to these various
theories which we have discussed
this morning, which indicate that the
earth and the universe was a relatively
(Thereupon, an off-the-record
discussion was had.)
MR. CHILDS: I'll read this:
I, DR. AKRIDGE, would like to present
testimony in the area of cosmology
relating specifically to the Big Bang
Expanding Universe Theory versus A
Recent Creation In The Age of The Sun.
Any Addition to that, I would
feel comfortable with saying that any-
thing within the scope of the articles
that he has given you, I think that he
could testify if we need him. Okay.
At the trial at this time, cosmo-
logy, the Big Bang Expanding Universe
MISSING PAGE 46
Q Dr. Akridge, could you be more specific
about the source of the background radiation?
A Okay, how about an analogy, is that all
Q I will tell you at the end of the analogy.
A Your oven at home, if you turn it on,
the heating coil begins to heat on the inside. Two
things heat up: the gas in the oven as the air in
the oven begins to move more rapidly the molecules
and that is what we sense as heat; and another thing
that happens that you probably -- another thing
happens, there's an infrared wave length of light
that gets trapped in the oven -- walls of the oven,
mostly what you sense unless you put your hands near
the elements and the heat from the air feels hot,
but regardless of whether there's any air or not.
There's no light whether or not it's visible to the
eye -- infrared light.
If you were to seal up the oven and pump
the air out and turn on the heating coils, the walls
would come to some temperature and there would be
no air in there at all. But the infrared wave length
would still be trapped in the oven so it's the --
so there is just light energy contained in the oven.
And we say -- well, in that case, for
an oven, it would be a temperature of about 400 de-
grees above absolute zero, which would mean that
it's -- the light energy in there is in thermal
equilibrium, not heating and not cooling the walls
of the oven; the walls would be at that temperature.
Well, that's the radiation that I'm
explaining to you in the galaxy; that the inner region
between stars our galaxy contains a little dust, but
practically not at all. Really, if it contained only
a paper thickness of dust between us and the nearest
star, we couldn't even see the nearest star through
it for it's very diffuse gas.
In other words, compared to your oven,
all the air would be pumped out, essentially, so
that the energy that's there is totally -- almost
totally the electromagnetic energy, lowgrade light
In this case, its longer wavelengths
than infrared, which could be called microwaves.
Q What is the wavelength of the radiation
you're talking about?
A Let's see, it's about 1/10 of a centimeter,
I think; maybe it's a 1/100th of a centimeter. I
don't know exactly, but on that order of wavelength
the microwaves generally extend toward that order
of magnitude in this general length.
Infrared is about a hundred times shorter
-- a hundred or a thousand times shorter still.
Q What is the specific source of this
A The radiation?
Q Yes, what is the source that generates
this wave of 1/100th of a centimeter or 1/10th of a
A In space, you mean the three-degree
radiation we're talking about?
A The source would be starlight that used
to be visible or infrared light or ultaviolet star-
light that had been absorbed by the dust of the
galaxy and re-radiated and possibly re-absorbed until
it's in equilibrium with the light, lowgrade light,
that's already there.
If there's none, then that's the first,
but after it goes into equilibrium and just adds to
Q I'm sorry, I didn't understand. It has
to be in equilibrium with what?
A Well, the light would be degraded in
energy until it's got the same average energy of
the lowgrade light that's already there.
Q Which light was already there?
A Well, the three-degree radiation light
that's there now.
New light re-absorbs by dust and re-
radiated would add to the three-degree light that's
already there and increase it a little bit.
Q What wavelength would this light start
A Visible light would be about, oh, say,
about a decimal point and, say, six zeroes and some
number; about ten to the minus seven meters.
Q It's getting bigger?
A Much longer wavelength.
Q Does this happen only within the galaxy?
A Are you talking about other galaxies in
A Gee, I don't know. If they have dust
and they appear to, then you'd have a similar process.
Q Why isn't light from sources other than
our galaxy included in your calculation?
A They -- for one thing, they wouldn't
have had time to get here in ten years. Another
thing, the light that -- the three-degree light would
come from another galaxy and if it could get here,
would be rather spread out, more like a light in the
corner. By the time it gets to you it doesn't feel
as hot in intensity as it is when it gets closer.
Most of the galaxies are so distant it
wouldn't have much effect.
Q What do you mean, the light isn't here
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