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Lou FCD



Posts: 5409
Joined: Jan. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 06 2011,16:04   

Quote (dvunkannon @ April 06 2011,15:49)
Quote
but the details of that process are still unclear.

Obvious joke is obvious.

--------------
Lou FCD is still in school, so we should only count him as a baby biologist. -carlsonjok -deprecated
I think I might love you. Don't tell Deadman -Wolfhound

Work-friendly photography
NSFW photography

   
REC



Posts: 638
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 14 2011,17:31   

Hey RNA-world kids-

Ribozyme-Catalyzed Transcription of an Active Ribozyme
Science 8 April 2011:  Vol. 332 no. 6026 pp. 209-212
DOI: 10.1126/science.1200752

The authors evolve a ribozyme, selected from a previous study, into an efficient polymerase, capable of transcribing many different sequences from a complementary template. The evolved ribozyme was shown to be able to synthesize a naturally occurring ribizyme, called the hammerhead ribozyme. All with in vitro selection and evolution.

  
midwifetoad



Posts: 3992
Joined: Mar. 2008

(Permalink) Posted: April 15 2011,05:13   

Phonemic Diversity Supports a Serial Founder Effect Model of Language Expansion from Africa

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6027/346.abstract

http://www.nytimes.com/2011....al-home

Quote
The finding fits well with the evidence from fossil skulls and DNA that modern humans originated in Africa. It also implies, though does not prove, that modern language originated only once, an issue of considerable controversy among linguists.

The detection of such an ancient signal in language is surprising. Because words change so rapidly, many linguists think that languages cannot be traced very far back in time. The oldest language tree so far reconstructed, that of the Indo-European family, which includes English, goes back 9,000 years at most


--------------
Any version of ID consistent with all the evidence is indistinguishable from evolution.

  
Henry J



Posts: 5045
Joined: Mar. 2005

(Permalink) Posted: April 15 2011,23:11   

Ah, so the tower of Babel is slightly older than previously thought? ;)

Henry

  
Albatrossity2



Posts: 2780
Joined: Mar. 2007

(Permalink) Posted: April 16 2011,11:30   

Evolutionary analysis applied to languages.

Common descent is a good explanatory framework.

--------------
Flesh of the sky, child of the sky, the mind
Has been obligated from the beginning
To create an ordered universe
As the only possible proof of its own inheritance.
† † † † † † † † † † † † - Pattiann Rogers

   
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 16 2011,13:29   

I just attended the science teachers workshop, "Fossils, Bones & Primates: †Enriching High School Teaching," open to the public, at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists annual meeting in Mpls. Great presentations, resources, and exchange of ideas; I met Dr. Andrew Petto, of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, along with many educators and grad students, and I hope to turn this into another article with resources and links. †

(Oh, I forgot to say, my article on the Brooklyn Public Library's "Human Genome Project Community Conversations" program will be published soon in Public Libraries.)

--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
fnxtr



Posts: 2808
Joined: June 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 16 2011,18:38   

Quote (Kristine @ April 16 2011,11:29)
I just attended the science teachers workshop, "Fossils, Bones & Primates: †Enriching High School Teaching," open to the public, at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists annual meeting in Mpls. Great presentations, resources, and exchange of ideas; I met Dr. Andrew Petto, of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, along with many educators and grad students, and I hope to turn this into another article with resources and links. †

(Oh, I forgot to say, my article on the Brooklyn Public Library's "Human Genome Project Community Conversations" program will be published soon in Public Libraries.)

Brava, again. :-)

--------------
"[A] book said there were 5 trillion witnesses. Who am I supposed to believe, 5 trillion witnesses or you? That shit's, like, ironclad. " -- stevestory

"Wow, you must be retarded. I said that CO2 does not trap heat. If it did then it would not cool down at night."  Joe G

  
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 17 2011,11:09   

Quote (fnxtr @ April 16 2011,18:38)
Quote (Kristine @ April 16 2011,11:29)
I just attended the science teachers workshop, "Fossils, Bones & Primates: †Enriching High School Teaching," open to the public, at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists annual meeting in Mpls. Great presentations, resources, and exchange of ideas; I met Dr. Andrew Petto, of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, along with many educators and grad students, and I hope to turn this into another article with resources and links. †

(Oh, I forgot to say, my article on the Brooklyn Public Library's "Human Genome Project Community Conversations" program will be published soon in Public Libraries.)

Brava, again. :-)

A summation and some photos.

When am I going to get paid for doing this? ;)

--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
Dr.GH



Posts: 2165
Joined: May 2002

(Permalink) Posted: April 17 2011,12:18   

Quote (Kristine @ April 17 2011,09:09)
When am I going to get paid for doing this? ;)

That is a profound question my wife has often asked me.

--------------
"Science is the horse that pulls the cart of philosophy."

L. Susskind, 2004 "SMOLIN VS. SUSSKIND: THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE"

   
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 17 2011,12:58   

Quote (Dr.GH @ April 17 2011,12:18)
Quote (Kristine @ April 17 2011,09:09)
When am I going to get paid for doing this? ;)

That is a profound question my wife has often asked me.

If I only had a dollar for every time an editor said to me in the past year, "You do realize that scholarly publication is gratis, and that we cannot pay you?" Yes, we know. :)

Money isn't important. I need it, but it is not of prime importance.

--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
Timothy McDougald



Posts: 1030
Joined: Dec. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 23 2011,08:56   

I'm sure Robert Byers would say that this is just a lizard

Quote
ďThis rainforest skink has an almost identical giant, hammer-tooth in its dentition and in this case we know what itís used for: crushing the hard shells of snails, one of the main foods of this rainforest skink,Ē says Dr Hocknull.

"It appears Malleodectes evolved millions of years ago to exploit the ecological niche occupied today by these specialised lizards," says Dr Arena.

The researchers say the similarity between the teeth of the fossil marsupials and the living skink is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence.


--------------
Church burning ebola boy

FTK: I Didn't answer your questions because it beats the hell out of me.

PaV: I suppose for me to be pried away from what I do to focus long and hard on that particular problem would take, quite honestly, hundreds of thousands of dollars to begin to pique my interest.

   
Albatrossity2



Posts: 2780
Joined: Mar. 2007

(Permalink) Posted: April 23 2011,20:51   

Do ya think that the "author" of The Spatula Brain cares about Buddhist monks?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-12661646
Coffee!!!

--------------
Flesh of the sky, child of the sky, the mind
Has been obligated from the beginning
To create an ordered universe
As the only possible proof of its own inheritance.
† † † † † † † † † † † † - Pattiann Rogers

   
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 26 2011,16:38   

Challenger Center webcasts

--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: April 28 2011,13:49   

A guy that is also in my SF club sent around a YouTube video on Fibonacci, therefore Jebus.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e9MwNm0gXd8

My response:
Quote
I've seen this appeal to the Fibonacci sequence before in jousting with anti-evolution and anti-science folks on the internet. You can hear and see that as the presentation gets away from organic growth and talks about waves and galaxies, the language gets more soft. People have especially criticized seeing Fibonacci spirals in galaxies as an example of pareidolia - seeing patterns where we want to see them.

Nautilus spirals and Fibonacci Numbers - Busted!
http://www.shallowsky.com/blog/science/fibonautilus.html
Busted and Stomped On!
[URL=http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/pseudo/fibonacc.htm


Until I googled it, I had gone along with the Nautilus-Fibonacci linkage. Now I see this is just another example of careful picking of evidence to support the case, and wrong at that.

Giving it a little more thought, a logarithmic (Fibonacci) spiral is space filling, and the shell reinforces itself. Other spiral patterns (seen in fossils) don't, and therefore would be more likely to break, affecting the expected survival of the organism. So these spirals are under evolutionary pressure, and the surviving patterns are examples of evolutionary arms races and selection pressures, not Jebus-doodles.

(The video misses an opportunity to link fingerprints and Fibonacci by failing to note the whorls in fingerprints and zooming in on a suitably spiral shaped picture.)

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 28 2011,20:56   

This Saturday I shall be in a group of about 15 people heading out to rural MN to launch a balloon with payloads into the atmosphere, and retrieving it after it parachutes when the balloon bursts. I did not make up a payload (a lot of this was over my head), but I will be photographing and writing about the event. :)

We will be tracking the payload via radio frequency, and I think someone scrounged up a camera to launch. Another guy is writing up the curriculum to give to schools.

ETA - We had to cancel due to weather. Alternate date: end of May

Edited by Kristine on May 03 2011,16:06

--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
Kristine



Posts: 3061
Joined: Sep. 2006

(Permalink) Posted: April 29 2011,12:46   

Electrical Oscillations Found to be Critical for Storing Spatial Memories in Brain.

Quote
"This important result shows that, in general, you can eliminate a substantial amount of incoming information to a brain circuit without that brain circuit losing a majority of its functionality," he adds. "The implication of this finding is that restoring memory function does not require that we exactly reassemble damaged neural circuitry, rather we can regain function by preserving or restoring key components."


--------------
Which came first: the shimmy, or the hip?

AtBC Poet Laureate

"I happen to think that this prerequisite criterion of empirical evidence is itself not empirical." - Clive

"Damn you. This means a trip to the library. Again." -- fnxtr

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 03 2011,14:26   

Apparently, not only did the Good Lord see fit to hide bone shaped rocks deep in the Earth, but He also hid bone proteins in some of them.

http://www.plosone.org/article....0019445

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
Henry J



Posts: 5045
Joined: Mar. 2005

(Permalink) Posted: May 03 2011,14:29   

Is that why some people think they have a bone to pick...

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 03 2011,16:49   

Speculative question: Does a black hole have a hab zone?

The accretion disc goes from cold gas to x-ray emitting plasma. Somewhere inbetween, it is room temperature.

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
Henry J



Posts: 5045
Joined: Mar. 2005

(Permalink) Posted: May 03 2011,17:09   

But do objects stay in that zone for enough time to matter, or do they just fall through it?

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 04 2011,05:50   

Quote (Henry J @ May 03 2011,18:09)
But do objects stay in that zone for enough time to matter, or do they just fall through it?

According to the Wikipedia article on accretion discs, particles travel in a tight spiral, almost circular orbits. Also, radiation pressure and eddies push some material outward temporarily. So I think residence time could be pretty high.

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
Albatrossity2



Posts: 2780
Joined: Mar. 2007

(Permalink) Posted: May 04 2011,06:42   

Interesting news about thylacines.

--------------
Flesh of the sky, child of the sky, the mind
Has been obligated from the beginning
To create an ordered universe
As the only possible proof of its own inheritance.
† † † † † † † † † † † † - Pattiann Rogers

   
OgreMkV



Posts: 3668
Joined: Oct. 2009

(Permalink) Posted: May 04 2011,07:57   

Quote (dvunkannon @ May 04 2011,05:50)
Quote (Henry J @ May 03 2011,18:09)
But do objects stay in that zone for enough time to matter, or do they just fall through it?

According to the Wikipedia article on accretion discs, particles travel in a tight spiral, almost circular orbits. Also, radiation pressure and eddies push some material outward temporarily. So I think residence time could be pretty high.

Depends on what you mean by habitable.  The density of material around the black hole is probably high enough with enough energy to create a fair bit of frictional drag, so I doubt the residence time would be all that much.

Too, the infalling matter causes jets of x-rays and other nastiness, so that might be a problem.

OTOH, there are black holes at the center of galaxies and they are obviously long-lived structures.

--------------
Ignored by those who can't provide evidence for their claims.

http://skepticink.com/smilodo....retreat

   
OgreMkV



Posts: 3668
Joined: Oct. 2009

(Permalink) Posted: May 04 2011,08:32   

Quote (Albatrossity2 @ May 04 2011,06:42)
Interesting news about thylacines.

Someone needs to let Robert Byers know...

--------------
Ignored by those who can't provide evidence for their claims.

http://skepticink.com/smilodo....retreat

   
Henry J



Posts: 5045
Joined: Mar. 2005

(Permalink) Posted: May 04 2011,23:07   

Letting that guy know something is not one of my skills.

Henry

  
midwifetoad



Posts: 3992
Joined: Mar. 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 05 2011,06:01   

A facepalm enabled wolf.

--------------
Any version of ID consistent with all the evidence is indistinguishable from evolution.

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 10 2011,20:11   

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110509113254.htm

Calculation of the "Hoyle nucleus" of Carbon

This story should get some coverage over on UD. The Hoye nucleus is that state of the carbon nucleus with very similar energy to three helium nuclei. The similarity allows fusion in stars to create carbon readily, and from there, the rest of the larger atomic nuclei up to iron. (Nuclei bigger than iron only get formed when stars explode.)

Hoyle considered the similarity to be an example of cosmic fine tuning, without which we would not exist. As this article points out, this was pretty much an assertioin for the last 50 years, but now we are in a position to actually calculate whether it does depend sensitively on other physical constants, and if so, what they are and over what range.

Several years ago, I asked an astrophysicist if the resonance was necessary or just helpful. In our normal model of stellar evolution, as the star ages and uses up hydrogen in the core, it starts fusing helium nuclei. Two He-4 nuclei form an unstable Beryllium-8, but if another He-4 comes along they can form a stable C-12. Everyone agrees the process proceeds faster because of the resonance. My question was - if the resonance didn't exist, would a similar amount of carbon be formed, just later, when the core had reached a higher temperature?

If you do have to wait, that by itself would knock down the total amount of carbon in the universe, since some smaller stars would never reach that temperature without the help of fusing larger and larger nuclei. Their fusion proces would stall, and they would evolve towards red dwarfdom, as small stars do in the real physics of our universe. But we are the result of large stars blowing up, so I discount this effect in deciding whether there would be enough carbon for life.

On the other hand, you can't just tinker with the resonance without explaining why it would be different than it is. Changing whatever underlies the resonance of C-12 and 3 He-4 would necessarily change other things as well, perhaps in the direction of producing Carbon by a different route through a new or strengthened alernative resonance. This is of course never considered by fine tuning enthusiasts. Now we are starting to put the tools together to test these ideas.

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 11 2011,15:04   

Quote (dvunkannon @ May 10 2011,21:11)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110509113254.htm

Calculation of the "Hoyle nucleus" of Carbon

This story should get some coverage over on UD. The Hoye nucleus is that state of the carbon nucleus with very similar energy to three helium nuclei. The similarity allows fusion in stars to create carbon readily, and from there, the rest of the larger atomic nuclei up to iron. (Nuclei bigger than iron only get formed when stars explode.)

Hoyle considered the similarity to be an example of cosmic fine tuning, without which we would not exist. As this article points out, this was pretty much an assertioin for the last 50 years, but now we are in a position to actually calculate whether it does depend sensitively on other physical constants, and if so, what they are and over what range.

Several years ago, I asked an astrophysicist if the resonance was necessary or just helpful. In our normal model of stellar evolution, as the star ages and uses up hydrogen in the core, it starts fusing helium nuclei. Two He-4 nuclei form an unstable Beryllium-8, but if another He-4 comes along they can form a stable C-12. Everyone agrees the process proceeds faster because of the resonance. My question was - if the resonance didn't exist, would a similar amount of carbon be formed, just later, when the core had reached a higher temperature?

If you do have to wait, that by itself would knock down the total amount of carbon in the universe, since some smaller stars would never reach that temperature without the help of fusing larger and larger nuclei. Their fusion proces would stall, and they would evolve towards red dwarfdom, as small stars do in the real physics of our universe. But we are the result of large stars blowing up, so I discount this effect in deciding whether there would be enough carbon for life.

On the other hand, you can't just tinker with the resonance without explaining why it would be different than it is. Changing whatever underlies the resonance of C-12 and 3 He-4 would necessarily change other things as well, perhaps in the direction of producing Carbon by a different route through a new or strengthened alernative resonance. This is of course never considered by fine tuning enthusiasts. Now we are starting to put the tools together to test these ideas.

http://physics.aps.org/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.192501.pdf

The money quote, at least for Hoyle worshipers.
†  
Quote
We note the 17 MeV reduction in the ground state binding energy and 12 MeV reduction for the Hoyle state while less than half as much binding correction for the spin-2 state. This degree of freedom in the energy spectrum suggests that at least some fine-tuning of parameters is needed to set the Hoyle state energy near the 8Be-alpha threshold. It would be very interesting to understand which fundamental parameters in nature control this fine-tuning. At the most fundamental level there are only a few such parameters, one of the most interesting being the masses of the up and down quarks.


Emboldenation by mois.

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
Albatrossity2



Posts: 2780
Joined: Mar. 2007

(Permalink) Posted: May 11 2011,16:55   

Missing link discovered between "fungi and the rest of the kingdom of life."

Or, as the IDiots would observe - Two new gaps!

--------------
Flesh of the sky, child of the sky, the mind
Has been obligated from the beginning
To create an ordered universe
As the only possible proof of its own inheritance.
† † † † † † † † † † † † - Pattiann Rogers

   
dvunkannon



Posts: 1377
Joined: June 2008

(Permalink) Posted: May 11 2011,16:59   

Quote (dvunkannon @ May 11 2011,16:04)
†  
Quote (dvunkannon @ May 10 2011,21:11)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110509113254.htm

Calculation of the "Hoyle nucleus" of Carbon

This story should get some coverage over on UD. The Hoye nucleus is that state of the carbon nucleus with very similar energy to three helium nuclei. The similarity allows fusion in stars to create carbon readily, and from there, the rest of the larger atomic nuclei up to iron. (Nuclei bigger than iron only get formed when stars explode.)

Hoyle considered the similarity to be an example of cosmic fine tuning, without which we would not exist. As this article points out, this was pretty much an assertioin for the last 50 years, but now we are in a position to actually calculate whether it does depend sensitively on other physical constants, and if so, what they are and over what range.

Several years ago, I asked an astrophysicist if the resonance was necessary or just helpful. In our normal model of stellar evolution, as the star ages and uses up hydrogen in the core, it starts fusing helium nuclei. Two He-4 nuclei form an unstable Beryllium-8, but if another He-4 comes along they can form a stable C-12. Everyone agrees the process proceeds faster because of the resonance. My question was - if the resonance didn't exist, would a similar amount of carbon be formed, just later, when the core had reached a higher temperature?

If you do have to wait, that by itself would knock down the total amount of carbon in the universe, since some smaller stars would never reach that temperature without the help of fusing larger and larger nuclei. Their fusion proces would stall, and they would evolve towards red dwarfdom, as small stars do in the real physics of our universe. But we are the result of large stars blowing up, so I discount this effect in deciding whether there would be enough carbon for life.

On the other hand, you can't just tinker with the resonance without explaining why it would be different than it is. Changing whatever underlies the resonance of C-12 and 3 He-4 would necessarily change other things as well, perhaps in the direction of producing Carbon by a different route through a new or strengthened alernative resonance. This is of course never considered by fine tuning enthusiasts. Now we are starting to put the tools together to test these ideas.

http://physics.aps.org/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.192501.pdf

The money quote, at least for Hoyle worshipers.
† † † †
Quote
We note the 17 MeV reduction in the ground state binding energy and 12 MeV reduction for the Hoyle state while less than half as much binding correction for the spin-2 state. This degree of freedom in the energy spectrum suggests that at least some fine-tuning of parameters is needed to set the Hoyle state energy near the 8Be-alpha threshold. It would be very interesting to understand which fundamental parameters in nature control this fine-tuning. At the most fundamental level there are only a few such parameters, one of the most interesting being the masses of the up and down quarks.


Emboldenation by mois.

OK, I hope you don't think I'm being a dick about this for posting three times on the same article, but I think this is important.

Why? Because of Hoyle's approach and use of anthropic reasoning, and the subsequent uptake by fine tuning anti-science folk, that's why. Besides, this is damn hard for me to understand, and I'd like to make sure I do understand it.

So, Hoyle says this resonance _must_ exist because we exist, and further, this shows that the universe has been mightily fine tuned.

So what is this amazing fine tuning?

Look at table 1 in the paper.

Be-8 + He-4 = -84.8 MeV
C-12 = -92.16 MeV

Difference? 8%

As a result of which, 4 out of 10,000 Be-8 and He-4 collisions go on to become C-12.

I gotta say, I'm way disappointed. I thought I was going to hear that the difference was only 0.000000...8%, not 8%, and that C-12 production was 9,000 out of 10,000, not 4.

What is Hoyle saying? If it was 8.00001%, then the successful collision rate would crash to 4 in a billion? If it was 7.9999999% the rate would shoot up to 4 out of 10? That in one case no star could evolve synthesize carbon, and in the other the universe would be awash in carbon? I've never heard a numerical guess like that attributed to him, just that the existence of the resonance convinced him a deity exists.

The paper does speculate that the resonance depends on the ratio of the mass of the up and down quarks. Cool, that is a step towards understanding it. But if we imagine the fine tuning in these terms, changing this ratio will also change the energy levels of Be-8 and He-4. A resonance at one energy level might disappear, while one at another level will be created. Hoyle didn't work all that out, did he? No, he just asserted that changing some unknown parameter by any amount would wreck the known resonance, and nothing would replace it.

That is not science.

--------------
Iím referring to evolution, not changes in allele frequencies. - Cornelius Hunter
Iím not an evolutionist, Iím a change in allele frequentist! - Nakashima

  
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