Joined: Nov. 2006
|Quote (jeannot @ Sep. 28 2007,15:55)|
|Quote (VMartin @ Sep. 27 2007,23:59)|
|Because there is no advatage having warning coloration for wasps and ladybirds all of their "mimics" are not protected. Consequently natural selection couldn't caused their resemblance.|
This study shows the contrary.
|Title: Why are wasps so intimidating: field experiments on hunting dragonflies (Odonata : Aeshna grandis)|
Author(s): Kauppinen J, Mappes J
Source: ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 66: 505-511 Part 3, SEP 2003
Abstract: The mechanisms of aposematism (unprofitability of prey combined with a conspicuous signal) have mainly been studied with reference to vertebrate predators, especially birds. We investigated whether dragonflies, Aeshna grandis, avoid attacking wasps, Vespula norwegica, which are an unprofitable group of prey for most predators. As a control we used flies that were painted either black or with yellow and black stripes. The dragonflies showed greater aversion to wasps than to flies. Black-and-yellow-striped flies were avoided more than black ones, suggesting that aposematic coloration on a harmless fly provides a selective advantage against invertebrate predators. There was no significant difference in reactions to black-painted and black-and-yellow wasps, indicating that, in addition to coloration, some other feature in wasps might deter predators. In further experiments we offered dragonflies artificial prey items in which the candidate warning signals (coloration, odour and shape) were tested separately while other confounding factors were kept constant. The dragonflies avoided more black-and-yellow prey items than solid black or solid yellow ones. However, we found no influence of wasp odour on dragonfly hunting. Dragonflies were slightly, but not significantly, more reluctant to attack wasp-shaped prey items than fly-shaped ones. Our results suggest that the typical black-and-yellow stripes of wasps, possibly combined with their unique shape, make dragonflies avoid wasps. Since black-and-yellow stripes alone significantly decreased attack rate, we conclude that even profitable prey species (i.e. Batesian mimics) are able to exploit the dragonflies' avoidance of wasps. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
What's your take on that, Martin?
Hehe. Alan Fox himself seems to be enthusiastic about the results of the "experiment". Darwinists are making these childish experiments more than 150 years to prove their nonsense about their concept of "mimicry". Heikertinger was right when he made the same experiments himself and prove exactly the opposite from them.
Here you have another one, which proves exact the opposite!
However, dragonflies showed no differences between attacks on prey with wasp-like colours and patterns and those on the same-sized prey that were nonmimetic. Moreover, dragonflies avoided attacking both mock-painted and black-painted wasps entirely. Overall, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that wasp-like warning signals protect small insect prey from attack by dragonflies, although size seems to be an important cue in dragonfly prey choice.
The most important thing is hidden in the last sentence.
The prey are almost always picked up by size. It is same in all Nature. "Warning coloration" plays no nole. It plays role only in darwinian text-books.
I could not answer, but should maintain my ground.-