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  Topic: immune system evolution, collecting references to recent articles< Next Oldest | Next Newest >  

Posts: 319
Joined: May 2002

(Permalink) Posted: Mar. 31 2003,22:49   

In the "here is part of what non-rearranging receptors do" category:


Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2003 Jan 10;91(1):1-12
TOLL-like receptors linking innate and adaptive immune response.

Werling D, Jungi TW.

Institute of Veterinary Virology, University of Berne, Langgass-Str. 122, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Invading pathogens are controlled by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Adaptive immunity, which is mediated by B and T lymphocytes, recognises pathogens by rearranged high affinity receptors. However, the establishment of adaptive immunity is often not rapid enough to eradicate microorganisms as it involves cell proliferation, gene activation and protein synthesis. More rapid defense mechanisms are provided by innate immunity, which recognises invading pathogens by germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Recent evidence shows that this recognition can mainly be attributed to the family of TOLL-like receptors (TLR). Binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) to TLR induces the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (ROI and RNI), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and up-regulates expression of co-stimulatory molecules, subsequently initiating the adaptive immunity. In this review, we will summarize the discovery and the critical roles of the TLR family in host defense, briefly allude to signaling mechanisms mediating the response to TLR ligands, and will provide an update on current knowledge regarding the ligand specificity of these receptors and their role in immunity of domestic animals, particularly cattle.

  23 replies since Dec. 17 2002,18:45 < Next Oldest | Next Newest >  


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