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Dr.GH



Posts: 2181
Joined: May 2002

(Permalink) Posted: Nov. 16 2015,14:24   

ID creationism predicted that multiple sequential mutations could not happen. Falsified;

"Acceleration of Emergence of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance in Connected Microenvironments" Qiucen Zhang, Guillaume Lambert, David Liao, Hyunsung Kim, Kristelle Robin,    Chih-kuan Tung, Nader Pourmand, Robert H. Austin, Science 23 September 2011: Vol. 333 no. 6050 pp. 1764-1767

“It is surprising that four apparently functional SNPs should fix in a population within 10 hours of exposure to antibiotic in our experiment. A detailed understanding of the order in which the SNPs occur is essential, but it is unlikely that the four SNPs emerged simultaneously; in all likelihood they are sequential (21–23). The device and data we have described here offer a template for exploring the rates at which antibiotic resistance arises in the complex fitness landscapes that prevail in the mammalian body. Furthermore, our study provides a framework for exploring rapid evolution in other contexts such as cancer (24).

Multi-site mutations, functional mutations, TEN HOURS, why sequential mutations are functional, and more likely, and with medical applications.

ID Creationism insisted that the Cambrian phyla were "fully formed, and that all modern phyla were represented in the Cambrian. Falsified;

Precambrian Ediacaran/Cambrian;

Erwin, Douglas H., James W. Valentine
2013 "The Cambrian Explosion: The Construction of Animal Diversity" New York: Roberts and Company Publishers

Valentine, James W.
2005 “On the Origin of Phyla” University of Chicago Press

A. Yu. Zhuravlev, R. A. Wood, A. M. Penny
"Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate" Proc. R. Soc. B 2015 282 20151860; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1860. Published online 4 November 2015.

ID Creationism claimed embryology data that supported evolution was faked, and that embryology falsified evolution and supported ID Creationism. Falsified;

Ossa-Fuentes L, Mpdozis J and Vargas AO (2015). Bird embryos uncover homology and evolution of the dinosaur ankle. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/natcomms9902

Diaz, R. E.,&Trainor, P. A. (2015). Hand/foot splitting and the ‘re-evolution’of mesopodial skeletal elements during the evolution and radiation of chameleons. BMC evolutionary biology, 15(1), 184.

http://www.science20.com/news_ar....-159819

Richards, Robert J.
2008 “The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought” University of
Chicago Press.

ID Creationism claims that nested hierarchies from DNA are because their god used "common tool kits." Falsified by hierarchies built by silenced pathological genes;

Sverdlov, ED. 2000. Retroviruses and primate evolution. BIOESSAYS Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 161-171.

Welkin E. Johnson and John M. Coffin
"Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences" PNAS 1999 96 (18) 10254-10260; doi:10.1073/pnas.96.18.10254

Heui-Soo Kim, Osamu Takenaka, Timothy J. Crow
"Isolation and phylogeny of endogenous retrovirus sequences belonging to the HERV-W family in primates" J Gen Virol October 1999 vol. 80 no. 10: 2613-2619

ID Creationism claims complex organs cannot have evolved. Falsified by Paley's favorites;

Ivan R Schwab
2011 “Evolution's Witness: How Eyes Evolved”  Oxford University Press

Teaford, Mark F., Moya Meredith Smith, and Mark W.J. Ferguson
2000/2006 “Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth” Cambridge University Press

The fact is that Behe's "irreducible complexity" was neither original, nor an argument against evolution;

Hermann J. Muller,
1918 "Genetic Variability, Twin Hybrids and Constant Hybrids, in a Case of Balanced Lethal Factors", Genetics, Vol 3, No 5: 422-499, Sept 1918.
(This is the real source for a “irreducible complexity" argument only it was the argument for evolution. Behe was apparently unaware it was published).

Edited by Dr.GH on Nov. 16 2015,12:41

--------------
"Science is the horse that pulls the cart of philosophy."

L. Susskind, 2004 "SMOLIN VS. SUSSKIND: THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE"

   
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